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An in-depth Etymological, Historical, and Hermeneutical study, on Feast of Weeks aka Shavuot or Pentecost including the Gifts of the Holy Spirit empowerment to proclaim the Gospel, the 4th  and last Feast of the Lord typologically fulfilled in Jesus’ 1st Parousia Coming, setting the stage for the methodology of His 2nd coming, as with the Gift of His Spirit at Pentecost, so also will be His Coming and staying presence after Tribulation, at His return durring the Feast of Trumpets, to the Feast of Atonement ,before the Day of the Lord and His Wrath Judgment, at the Feast of Atonement, and culminating with His rule and reign durring Jubilee, aka the Millennial Kingdom or Marriage Supper of the Lamb.


You shall count for yourselves -- from the day after the sabbath, from the day when you bring the Omer of the waving (Feast of 1st Fruits)-- seven sabbaths, they shall be complete.  Until the day after the seventh sabbath you shall count, fifty days... Leviticus 23:15-16


Note:  Passover is on the 14th day of Nissan, followed by the Feast of Unleavened Bread starting on the 15th day; a Sabbath continues for 7days, and followed the next day by the Feast of First Fruits (i.e. “from the day after the sabbath”).  


Note:  The 1st day of each month is determined by viewing the first sliver of a new moon; which is always a biblical Sabbath day (Saturday).  Therefore the Feast of First Fruits / Easter and the Feast of Weeks / Pentecost are always on a Sunday.

          See Biblical Feasts Outline of events &  Sabbaths link.


The Festival of Weeks (Shavuot / Pentecost) is celebrated in the summer, and is the second of the three major festivals, each celebrated for 7 days, all with historical, agricultural and spiritual significance.  The other two are the Feast of Unleavened Bread (which includes Passover & First Fruits / Easter) in the Spring, and the Feast of Tabernacles / Sukkot, celebrated in the Fall; preceded by the Feasts of Trumpets and Atonement.

Agriculturally, the Feast of Weeks / Shavuot (Pentecost) commemorates the time when the summer first fruits were harvested and brought to the Temple, and is the second of three harvest festivals. 

Historically for Jews, it celebrates the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai, and is also known as the Festival of the Giving of the Torah (in lieu of celebrating the Feast of Weeks without a temple).

The counting of days starts from the Sabbath day following the feast of Passover / Crucifixion through to the feast of Shavuot / Pentecost is

7 weeks of 7 days + 1 day (50 days) ;

Shavuot / Pentecost is always 50 days later in the 3rd month; on the 6th day of Sivan – a Sunday. 

This period is known as the Counting of the Omer. An omer is a unit of measure (a 1-day serving size of grain / manna during the Exodus). On the second day of Passover, in the days of the Temple, an omer of barley was cut down and brought to the Temple as an offering. This 1 day of grain offering was referred to as the Omer.

The counting is intended to remind us of the link between Passover & Shavuot / Pentecost.


Passover commemorates deliverance during the Exodus, as well as commemorating Jesus’ offering of Himself as the sacrificial Lamb as spoken by Abraham:  “And Abraham said, My son, God will provide himself a lamb ...” Genesis 22:8.   50 days later the Feast of Weeks (Shavuot / Pentecost) commemorates the giving of the Holy Spirit; or the giving of the Torah to the Jews as practiced today.  


It reminds us that the redemption from slavery was not complete until we receive the Torah (Law) as a Jew, and were empowered by the Spirit of God as a Christian.

The counting reminds us of the important connection between Passover and Pentecost / Shavuot in the following ways:

-         Redeemed physically from bondage as a Jew.

-         Redeemed us spiritually from our bondage as a Christian.

-         By the giving of the Torah on Shavuot as a Jew.

-         By the giving of the Spirit on Pentecost as a Christian.

-    Redeemed spiritually from idolatry and immorality thru His Law as a Jew.

-         Empowered us with His Spirit as a Christian to proclaim Gods’ gift of salvation.


Feasts are Solemn Appointed Times with the Lord; Lev. 23:1-4. 

                        See “Feasts Prophetic Hermeneutics” 


The First 4 Feasts  “Appointed Times”  Fulfilled by Jesus 1st Coming:


Passover                       aka              Good Friday  /  

                                                        Jesus Crucifixion


Unleavened Bread         aka              Pursuit of Holiness  /  

                                                        To be without sin


First Fruits                     aka              Easter  /   Jesus Resurrection


Feast of Weeks             aka              Pentecost  / 

                                                        Gifts of the Holy Spirit   

                                                        as Jesus had Promised


The Last 3 Feasts  “Appointed Times”  to be Fulfilled in Jesus 2nd Coming:


Feasts of Trumpets       aka      Tribulation  / Day of the Lord

Feast of Atonement      aka      Day of Judgment

Feast of Tabernacles    aka      The New Heavens / New Earth / New Jerusalem 

The Hebrew word translated "Feasts" means Appointed Times.  According to De.16:16, God commands us to keep His Feasts (in light of the New Testament), and appear before the Lord with thanksgiving forever Ex. 12:14.

“And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, concerning the Feasts of the LORD, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are My Feasts.  Six days shall work be done: but the seventh day is the sabbath of rest, a holy convocation; ye shall do no work therein: it is the sabbath of the Lord in all your dwellings.  These are the Feasts of the Lord, even holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in their seasons.”  Lev. 23:1-4

Feasts and Sabbaths are called "Holy Convocations" in Scripture.  That is to say, they are intended to be times of meeting between God and man for "Holy Purposes".  

These “Feasts / Holy Convocations", are also a combination of celebratory commemorations of God’s providence fulfilled in the past, and the continued fulfillment of His remaining covenant promises for the future.

To fully understand the Feasts, one must first understand the full meaning and implications of the Sabbath as a time of oneness with God;  a foreshadowing of that which is to come. 

In celebrating the Sabbath (1day in 7; 24 hours – sundown to sundown).  The Sabbath is a foreshadowing of the fulfillment of God’s redemptive plan exemplified in His 7 Feasts. 

It is a time completely devoted to being with God.  

                       See Sabbaths link.

"IF you keep your feet from breaking the Sabbath and from doing as you please on My holy day, if you call the Sabbath a delight and  the Lord's holy day honorable,  and  if you honor it  by  not going your own way  and  not doing as you please  or  speaking idle words, then you will find your joy in the Lord, and I will cause you to ride on the heights of the land and to feast on the inheritance of your father Jacob." The mouth of the Lord has spoken.  Isaiah 58:13-14 


God commands that we keep every sabbath & feast day holy (in light of the New Testament).  These are "Holy Convocations"; that is, they are intended to be times of meeting between God and man for "Holy Purposes" in preparation for an eternity dwelling with Him!  Rev. 21:1-3




Note below the numerical sequencing relationship in God’s ordained plan; specifically in the correlation / foreshadowing the Year of Jubilee / Millennial Kingdom by Pentecost.

                        7 day week ending on a Sabbath

7 weeks of 7 days + 1 day (50 days);  from the Feast of Passover to the Feast of Weeks / Shavuot / Pentecost.  

7 years culminating in a Sabbatical year

7 Sabbatical years of 7 years culminating on the 50th year at the

Year of Jubilee. 

7 months of 7 feasts ending on the ultimate Sabbath, the Feast of Tabernacles

70 periods of 7 (Dan. 9:24-27); 

     First and Second coming of Christ / Messiah prophecies

70th period of 7 years prophecy of the “End of the Age” (Dan. 9:24-27)

70 years symbol of Completion

7 weeks of 7 days, plus 1 day, between the Feast of Passover aka Crucifixion and the Feast of Weeks aka Pentecost.

This is also true with the Year of Jubilee; 7 sabbatical years of 7-years plus 1 year;

Jubilee is consummated immediately upon completing the Feast of Atonement / Judgment.  


                       See “Last Days Data & Calendar

The gift of His Spirit (His coming &staying presence - parousia) at Pentecost occurred during the 1st coming of Jesus. 

This is also a foreshadowing of Jesus 2nd coming (parousia) and staying presence at Jubilee / Millennial Kingdom!  

See Jesus coming "Parousia" and staying presence at both Pentecost and Jubilee.



Note how the Feast days, Pentecost, Sabbath, Sabbatical years, the Year of Jubilee and ultimately at the Feast of Tabernacles are compounding foreshadows of a potential closer communion with God.  In other words, each event provides for us direction, guidance and an opportunity toward a progressively closer, more intimate, relationship with God. 

The Feast of Tabernacles becomes the ultimate completeness of meeting with God; to ‘tabernacle’ / dwell with God for eternity; foreshadowed by Jubilee / Millennial in the Year of Jubilee. The Feasts and Sabbaths are profound foreshadowings of the fulfillment of God’s total redemptive plan exemplified in His 7 Feasts listed in Leviticus 23, especially the Feast of Tabernacles. 

                             THE ESSENCE OF PENTECOST

Note the correlation between the 3rd “appointed time” with God at the Feast of First Fruits aka Easter, with the 4th “appointed time” with God at the Feast of Weeks aka Pentecost:

Then on the 3rd  “appointed time” at the Feast of First Fruits aka Easter, Jesus appeared to His disciples and “breathed upon them” and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit”, John 20:22.  This was in fulfillment of His promise in John 14:15-18 to send the apostles “a Comforter” – the Spirit of truth – Who would abide with them forever, “Whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees Him nor knows Him; but you know Him, for He dwells with you and will be in you John 14:17. 

Note that Jesus said the Holy Spirit was dwelling with His men, or ‘alongside’ of them.  The Greek preposition here is para.  Yet soon the Spirit would be more than ‘with’ the disciples; soon He would dwell in them.  Here the preposition is en.  I believe the disciples went from para to en in John 20:22, when Jesus breathed on them and said, “Receive the Holy Spirit”.  Here the apostles were “filled with the Spirit’ or ‘born again’ of the Spirit to a knowledge of Jesus’ deity. 


The 4th “appointed time” with God; the Feast of Weeks aka Pentecost:

Yet 40 days later, at the “Day of Ascension” Jesus promised His disciples the Baptism of the Holy Spirit  Acts 1:3-5,8:  “wait for the promise of the Father … and you shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days hence … and you shall receive power  after  the Holy Spirit has come upon  (epi) you …”.  They were Empowered with His Spirit as a Christian to proclaim Gods’ gift of salvation.

This promise was fulfilled on the 50th day, on Pentecost, aka Feast of Weeks as noted in Acts 2:1-4 “… and they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak in tongues”. 


Question:  Why would Jesus “breath upon them the Holy Spirit” at the first day of His Resurrection only to reappear to them on the 40th day to say to them: “Wait for the promise of the Father … you shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days hence … and you shall receive power after the Holy Spirit has come upon  (epi) you … and be witnesses …”? 

Hadn’t Jesus already “breathed upon them the Holy Spirit?

Why would He be instructing them to wait again to receive the Holy Spirit?  The answer lies in understanding the difference between “en” and “epi” Greek prepositions in the text.

In other words, the disciples’ were “filled with the Spirit” and received a born again experience upon having received the indwelling presence “en” of the Holy Spirit on Easter Sunday evening (Feast of First Fruits), and received the baptism (empowerment) in the Holy Spirit after  the Holy Spirit had come upon  (epi) them …” 

”Epi” on Pentecost (Feast of Weeks) as promised by Jesus in John 14:15-17. 


                     See   "Parousia"

                              “Gifts of the Spirit” 

                              “Feast of Tabernacles” file.

Web site:   http://www.feastsofthelord.net                                  Copyright Statement:  This file is Public Domain