7 Biblical Feasts of the Lord / Israel per Lev.23: A Historical Prophecy & Eschatology

EZRA 7 vs. NEH. 2 Prophecy Hermeneutics - DANIEL 9:25 Order to Rebuild JERUSALEM

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DANIEL 9:25 Order to Rebuild JERUSALEM

 

EZRA CHAPTER 7 

And

NEHEMIAH  CHAPTER 2

HERMENEUTICS

 

PURPOSE:

Determination of when” the "decree" was given to restore and to build Jerusalem;

According to Daniel Prophecy per 9:24-25.

Either in 457 B.C. per Ezra chapter 7, or 445 B.C. per Nehemiah chapter 2.

Emphasis on verses: Ezra  7:11-13 and Neh. 2:1-8

 

OBJECTIVE  METHODOLOGY:

To determine the start date of the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem, according to Ezra Chapter 7 in 457 B.C., or, according to Nehemiah Chapter 2 in 445 B.C.; in fulfillment of the prophecy in Daniel 9:24-25.

A hermeneutical analysis of the complete books of Ezra and Nehemiah will provide an “in-context” overview.  This will be followed by an outline overview of both Ezra Chapter 7 and Nehemiah Chapter 2 for a more in-depth / “in-context” hermeneutical analysis.

A comparative evaluation will then determine the hermeneutical basis, for an accurate start date, for the “order to restore and rebuild Jerusalem”.

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REFERENCES:

Prophecy: 

Dan. 9:24  “Seventy  weeks  (70 - 7 periods) are determined upon thy people and upon Thy holy city (Jerusalem), to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy.” 

“Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks (69-7’s): the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.”

See:    Daniel 70 Weeks Prophecy


Historical  Events and Dates Overview -  606 B.C. TO 445 B.C. (to follow)

Hermeneutical  Principles Applied (to follow)

 

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Historical Overview:


Yr’s     Date          Event

70      606 - 536 BC      Captivity of 10 Northern Tribes Starts - 70yr.

          593 - 571 BC      Ezekiel's Vision of a Future Temple

70      586 - 516 BC      Temple destroyed (to be completely rebuilt)

70      586 - 536 BC      Judah Captivity into Babylonian starts - 50 years.

70      606 - 536 BC      Captivity of 10 Tribes Ends - 70 years

50      586 - 536 BC      Captivity of 10 Tribes Ends – 50 yrs after Temple destroyed

50      586 - 536 BC      Judah Captivity ends - 50 years

20      536 - 516 BC      Zerubbabel starts rebuilding the “Zerubbabel” Temple

70      586 - 516 BC      Temple Rebuilt - 70 years after it was destroyed.

 

                457 BC       Ezra leads return to Jerusalem and restores temple worship

                445 BC      Nehemiah is ordered to “Restore & Rebuild the city of Jerusalem.”

                             Neh. 2:1,8   Fulfillment of Dan. 9:24-25 (69-7’s) prophecy

 

Reigns of Babylonian Kings:

Cyrus           559-530 B.C.

Cambyses     530-522 B.C.

Smerdis              522 B.C.

Darius I        521-486 B.C.

Ahasuerus    486-464 B.C.

Artezerxes I  464-423 B.C.

Darius II       423-404 B.C.

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 Hermeneutical Principles

“Hermeneutics is the art of finding the meaning of an author’s words and phrases, and of explaining it to others.”

Spurgeon:

"To say that words do mean a thing,

merely because they can be tortured into meaning,

is a most dishonorable and dangerous way of handling Scripture.

Ambiguity of language has been resorted to

                in order to mislead the reader or hearer. 

 

This is not 'to interpret the obscure by the clear',

but to obscure the clear

by a misleading comparison of assumedly ‘parallel’ passages."

General Guidelines Should Include:

The greatest rule of sound biblical interpretation is to

Let the Bible interpret itself, as a unit of thought,

in the immediate context, with the passage and book as a whole.  

We cannot properly “determine the meaning of a passage of

Scripture; independent of the rest of Scripture” 

Therefore, when seeking the meaning of one passage we must seek

unity with all other Bible teachings related to it,

particularly the words of Jesus.

      

Linguistic Hermeneutical Principles To Be Applied

 

 IN CONTEXT  -   CLEAR AND LITERAL  GRAMATICAL PRINCIPLES:

Grammer:

Analysis of the sentence and paragraph; i.e. noun, verb, object etc.

Determine "In-Context" meaning from the grammatical structure.

Review a  Hebrew or Greek Lexicon transliteration of meaning.

Look up the actual meaning of each word in the original languages.

Context is crucial within the larger narrative.

Study the context of the passage and the theme of the book.

Learn the cultural setting of the passage.

Determine what the original readers understood it to mean.

 

SCRIPTURE VERIFYING SCRIPTURE:

Confirm an interpretation with similar passages (synonyms).

Cross-references will show how the words are used in other contexts.

How the first mention of the word or topic is presented in the Bible.

 

Spurgeon:

“Primary attention should be given to the literal sense.

Understand each passage in its ‘first sense’—that is, its literal or obvious meaning. 

The first sense of the passage must never be drowned it must be distinctly declared.

Accommodation must never thrust out the original and native meaning,

A passage should not be strained.

 

Milton Terry 1898:

“The same general principles by which we ascertain the grammatical-historical sense, apply also to the interpretation of figurative language.”

“Two passages might be similar in sentiment, but not strictly parallel or identical in sense."

"The words of Scripture were intended to have one definite sense,

and that our first object should be to discover that sense,

and adhere rigidly to it.”

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EZRA  CHAPTERS  1 - 10 HERMENEUTICAL  ANALYSIS

                      CHAPTER  7  EMPHASIS

 

Keywords & Emphasis: 

King’s decree to Ezra & Zerubbabel to rebuild the house of God at Jerusalem;

Ezra to rebuild the spiritual condition of the people; deliverance from bondage

Physical restoration of the temple guided by Zerubbabel; spiritual reformation guided by Ezra

Book of Ezra In-Context Overview:

Theme:  Ezra instructed to guide Jews return to Jerusalem and rebuild the house of God.

20 References to rebuilding the temple; 

Ezra 1:2  3:2,6,8,10,11,12, 4:24  5: 2,13,16   6:3,14   7:13,17,19,20,21,23,24

0 references to rebuilding the walls and gates city of Jerusalem.

 

Chapter Overviews:

Chapter 1-6: 536-516 B.C.  Ezra ordered to rebuild the “House of God”

Chapter 7:   457 B.C. Ezra leads the 4th and last group of people back from Babylon to Jerusalem

Chap.  8-10: Ezra struggles with the repopulation and moral restoration of Jerusalem

 

EZRA CHAPTERS  1 – 10:

Chapters 1-2:

In the 1st year of his reign, Cyrus made a proclamation charging Ezra to return to Jerusalem to build the house of his God.

Chapter 3:

On the 7th month, Zerubbabel & Joshua the priest build the altar to observe the Feast of Tabernacles, but the foundation of the temple of the Lord was not yet laid (3:6).  Then in the 2nd month of the 2nd year of their return to Jerusalem to rebuild the house of God (3:8), they set forth the work to build the house of the Lord (3:8, 9, 10, 11, 12), and the foundation of the house of the Lord was completed.

Chapter 4-6:

Adversaries petition King Cyrus, then King Artexerxes, against the Jews in Jerusalem, causing work on the house of God to cease until the 2nd year of the reign of King Darius (4:24).  Then Zerubbabel arose to rebuild the house of God at Jerusalem (5:2).  He showed King Darius the original decree of King Cyrus to rebuild the house of God that was not yet finished (5:13, 16).  King Darius issued a decree to search for the records and found that in the 1st year of Cyrus, a decree was made concerning the house of God at Jerusalem, authorizing that it be built (6:1-3).  So the temple was rebuilt and finished according to the commands of Cyrus, Darius & Artexerxes.  It was completed in the month of Adar in the 6th year of the reign of Darius, i.e. 516 B.C. (6:14-15).  So they kept the Feast of Passover and Unleavened Bread on the 14th day of Nissan.

 

Ezra Chapter 7 In-Context Overview:

In Chapter 7 there are 7 references to restoring the “House of God”.
No references to "rebuilding Jerusalem". 

Ezra leads the people to repopulate Jerusalem and restore worship in the house of God, 457 B.C.

7:1-9  

In the 7th year of Artexerxes, Ezra reflects on his journey from Babylon to Jerusalem, according to all his requests and prepares his heart to seek the law of the Lord and to do it, and to teach IN Israel statues and judgments.  He travels from Babylon to Jerusalem from the first day of the 1st month (Nissan), to the first day of the 4th month (Tammuz).

7:10-24

King Artexerxes issues a decree (v13) that all who wish to go to Jerusalem with Ezra(v13) were to carry the silver and gold (v15) to purchase the offerings for the temple (v17) and to offer them upon the altar in the house of God (v.19).  If more be needed for house of God (v.20), King Artexerxes decrees (v20) that the king’s treasure house is open (v20), as Ezra and the priests have need for the house of God (v.21) and No tribute (v.24) shall be imposed upon the ministers of the house of God (v.24).

7:25-28

Ezra is instructed by the king to set up magistrates and judges who may judge all the people according to the laws of his god, and to teach them what the laws and statutes of his God and be judged accordingly (v.25-26).

Ezra prepares to leave for Jerusalem on the first day of the first month, in the 7th year of Artexerxes (28).

Ezra Chapter 8-10:

Ezra restores ministers for temple service and struggles with moral reforms of the people.

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NEHEMIAH  CHAPTERS  1 - 13 HERMENEUTICAL  ANALYSIS

                         CHAPTER  2  EMPHASIS

 

Keywords & Emphasis:

Nehemiah as governor for 12 years establishes the physical and political reconstruction of Jerusalem starting with rebuilding the outer walls and security gates;

Artexerxes’ decree, 445 B.C.

Book of Nehemiah  In-Context Overview:

Theme:  Nehemiah is appointed governor, and is instructed by the king to return and rebuild Jerusalem that had been left to lay wasted.

8 references to rebuilding Jerusalem;  Neh. 2:3,5,8,17 4:6, 17-18 6:15, 12:27

0 references to rebuilding the temple

 

Nehemiah Chapter 2 In-Context Overview:

2:1-8

In the month of Nissan in the 20th year of Artexerxes, Nehemiah requests the king’s permission to return to Judea in the city of his fathers so that he may rebuild it (v.5).  Artexerxes issues a letter of approval, which includes instruction to the keeper of the king’s forest to make it available for Nehemiah’s use in rebuilding the walls and gates for the city of Jerusalem (v.8).

2:9-15

Nehemiah travels to Jerusalem and inspects the gates & walls.  

Jerusalem was left to lay wasted and broken down. 

2:16-18

He approaches the rulers and the priests, saying to them, “You see the distress of Jerusalem laid waste and the gates thereof.  Come let us build up the wall of Jerusalem.”  They replied, “Let us rise up and build for this good work.”

2:19-20

Other Gentile inhabitants scorn & ridicule them, so Nehemiah rejects them as participants in the rebuilding.

Chapters 3-7

This is a record of the participants and building activities that occurred and those Gentiles who conspired to hinder Nehemiah’s work.

Nehemiah comments: “So built we built the wall, and all the wall was joined together, for the people had a mind to work.” (4:6)

Nehemiah is appointed governor of Judea from the 20th-32nd year of Artexerxes (5:14).

So the wall was finished in 52 days (6:15).

Chapter 8

Ezra and the priests bring the Book of the Law on the 1st day of the 7th months for the people to gather and receive the Book of the Law.  The people lifted up their hands, bowing before the Lord as they’re given understanding from the reading of the Law by Ezra.  They celebrated the Feast of Tabernacles in the 7th month as a solemn assembly.

Chapters 9-11

The people continue to receive the Law of the Lord and worship God. 

They become reestablished in Jerusalem and the land of Judea.

Chapter 12-13

The wall of Jerusalem is dedicated, with celebrations for same with sacrificial praise offerings.  Yet the people relapse into sinful ways until Nehemiah reforms the office in the house of God.

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Ezra – Nehemiah  Hermeneutics Summary

Starting in 536 B.C. the rebuilding of “the House of God” is the central ‘in-context’ theme in the book of Ezra.  A careful word search in the book of Ezra shows a continual reiteration of the terms “the House of God” as being the focus of attention and the purpose of any building activity occurring therein.  The book of Ezra has 20 references to rebuilding the Temple and no references to rebuilding the “City of Jerusalem”.  In contrast, Nehemiah has 8 references to rebuilding the “City of Jerusalem” and zero references to rebuilding the Temple. 

By 457 B.C., “the House of God” was still not rebuilt.  It was at this time that Ezra received his order to again attempt to restore and rebuild “the House of God”.  Ezra Chapter 7, written in 457 B.C., reiterates seven times the order to rebuild “the House of God”, emphasizing that Ezra was to appoint magistrates and judges to teach the people the laws of God that they might judge according to the laws of God.  Judgment by those appointed by Ezra was to be applied as part of the restoration of the Temple functions.  The monies and materials that Artexerxes gave to Ezra were for the sole purpose of rebuilding “the House of God”. 

It is not until the book of Nehemiah in 445 B.C. that there is any decree, order or monies specifically provided by any king for the restoration and rebuilding of the “City of Jerusalem”.  This is clear by reviewing Nehemiah’s request to rebuild the city of Jerusalem because it still “lay wasted”.  In other words, it had never been rebuilt.  In fact, the rebuilding of the Temple itself took an arduous 79 years from 536 B.C. to 457 B.C. to rebuild “the House of God”. 

Now 12 years after the completion of the rebuilding of the Temple, Nehemiah finally receives the order and the monies specifically provided for the rebuilding of the “City of Jerusalem”.   In contrast, prior orders and monies were given to Ezra strictly for the rebuilding of the Temple.  The book of Nehemiah is solely allotted to the theme of rebuilding the “City of Jerusalem” just as the book of Ezra theme is focused upon the restoration of “the House of God” and teaching God’s Law. 

Both of these themes culminate in 445 B.C. with celebration of the completion of Nehemiah’s work.  Ezra and the priests joined Nehemiah in celebration, worship and the teaching of God’s Law as noted in Nehemiah Chapter 8.  

In conclusion, the in-context hermeneutical interpretation of the books of Ezra and Nehemiah clearly demonstrate that they each carried out their distinct duties as ordered and funded by the king.  Ezra performed those duties of a priest and scribe for the building and restoration of instructing God’s Law in “the House of God”.  Nehemiah completed the work of construction and administration to restore and rebuild the “City of Jerusalem”. 

It is unsound hermeneutics to construe Ezra as having been given the order to restore and rebuild Jerusalem.  That is simply not the case.  It had still lay in waste some 12 years after the completion of the Temple.

“Primary attention should be given to the literal sense.  Understand each passage in its ‘first sense’, i.e. its literal or obvious meaning.  The first sense of the passage must never be drowned; it must be distinctly declared. Accommodation must never thrust out the original and native meaning.  A passage should not be strained.”  Charles Spurgeon

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